The Opener of Spritual Sovergnity in the Muslim Ummah The Ghadeer Declration is a very important event in the History of Islam. It was declared the Legacy of Spiritual Leadership after the Holy Prophet Muhammed S.A.S continued through Hazrat Ali R.A The Holy Prophet Muhammed Salalaahu Alaihi wasallam declared "One who has me as his Maula has Ali as his Maula" and prayed O Allah! Be his friend who befriends him and be his enemy who is his (Ali's) enemy. The event is reflected by the Following authentic sayings Hadees 1 :The Great Hadees of Ghadeer Ul Khulm It is narrated by Hudhayf ah bin Usayd al-Ghifar He said: O people! I have been told by a highly reliable source that Allah gave every prophet half the life span of his predecessor and I apprehend I shall (soon) receive the call and I shall accept it. I shall be asked (about my responsibilities) and you will (also) be asked (about me). What do you say (about this) They said: we bear witness that you struggled hard to groom us in the faith and taught us virtuous things. May Allah bless you with a noble reward! He said: Dont you bear witness that there is no god but Allah and Muhammad is Allah s servant and His Messenger ; Paradise and Hell are a reality and life after death is a reality and there is no doubt about the Day of Judgement and Allah will raise us again from the graves All of them replied: why not! We bear witness to all this. He said: O Allah! Be you a witness. He said: O people! Surely Allah is my master and I am the master of all believer s and I am nearer than their lives. One who has me as his Maula has Ali as his Maula. O Allah! Be his friend who befriends him and be his enemy who is his (Alis) enemy. O people! I am to leave before you and you will meet me at the Fountain (of kawthar). This fountain is even wider than the distance between Basra and Sana. It has silver bowls as big as the stars. When you come to me, I will ask you about two highly important things. It is to be seen how you treat them in my absence. The first important thing is Allah s Book which is related in one aspect to Allah and, in another aspect, to His servants. If you hold on to it firmly, you will neither go astray nor deviate (from truth); and (the second important thing) is my progeny, that is, the members of my family. Hold on to them. The highest authority has told me that surely these two will never deviate from the truth and they will meet me at the Fountain. 1. Tabarani related it in al-Mujam-ul-kabir (3:67, 180, 181 # 2683, 3052; 5:166, 167 # 4971); 2. Haythami, Majma-uz-zawaid (9:164,165); 3. Ibn Asakir, Tarikh Dimashq al-kabir (45:166, 167); 4. Ibn Kathir, al-Bidayah wan-nihayah (5:463); and Hindi in Kanz-ul-ummal (1:188, 189 # 957, 958). 5. Ibn Asakir related it from Sad also in Tarikh Dimashq alkabir (45:169). Hadith 2: “Amr bin al-as (radiallahu taala anhu) narrates that someone asked him: O ‘Amr! Our elders heard it from the Messenger of Allah about Ali: one who has me as his master has Ali as his master. Is it correct or not? Amr said: it is correct, and may I add that no one among the Companions deserves to be praised more than Ali .” Related by Ibn Qutaybah in al-Imamah was-siyasah (1:113). also known as Tarikh Al Khulafa Hadith 3: The second Haroon and opener of Spiritual Sovergnity The Holy Prophet (Sallalaahu Alaihi wasallam) is reported to have said to Hazrat Ali (Radiallahu taala anhu ): "Are you not pleased to have the position (manzilah) in relation to me as that Haroon had in relation to Musa" References: * Al Bukhari in his Sahih (al Matbaat al Khayriyyah, Egypt, 1320) in "Kitabbad al Khalq", "Bab manaqib `Ali (radiallahu taala anhu) ibn Abu Talib (radiallahu taala anhu)" and "Bab ghazwat Tabuk," in two places, records this tradition * Imam Muslim in his Sahih (Matba`at Bulaq, 1290), "Kitab fadail al Sahabah, " through three chains; * al Tirmizi, in his Sahih, ii, 301; * Ibn Majah in his Sunan, p. 12; * al Hakim in Mustadrak, ii, 337 * Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal in Musnad, i, 29, 170, 173, 174, 175, 177, 179, 182, 184, 185; 230, iii, 338, vi, 369 * al Nasai in Khasais, 4, 14, 15, 16, 17, 19, 32 * Ibn Sad in al Tabaqat (Leiden 1322) iii, part one, 14, 15 * Abu Nuaym in Hilyat al Awliya, vi, 345, vii, 194, 195, 196, viii, 307 * al Khatib in Tarikh Baghdad, i, 324, iii, 288, iv, 71, 204, 382, vii, 452, viii, 52, ix, 394, x, 43, xi, 432, xii, 323 * al Tabari in his Tarikh al Umam wa al Muluk (Matbaat al Istiqamah, Cairo, 1357), ii, 368 * Ibn al Asir, Usd alaghabah, v, 8 * al Muttaqi al Hindi, Kanz al Ummal, iii, 154, v, 40, vi, 154, 188, 395, 402, 404, 405, viii, 215 * al Haysami, Majma al Zawaid, ix, 109, 110, 111, 119 * al Muhibb al Tabari, in al Riyad al Nadirah, i, 13, ii, 162, 163, 164, 175, 195, 203 and Zakhair al Uqba, 120 Hadith 4 : The Holy Prophet Muhammed Salalaahu Alaihi wasallam said Ali is created from my Clay What will happen to the people who show rudeness to Ali! (Beware) that anyone who is rude to Ali is rude to me, and anyone who parted from Ali parted from me. Surely Ali is from me and I am from Ali. He has been created from my clay and I have been created from Ibrahims clay and I have an edge over Ibrahim. Some of us are the children of others and Allah hears and knows all these things. And He is the Wali (guardian) of all of you after me. (Buraydah describes that) I said: O Messenger of Allah! Spare some of your time and extend your hand. I want to take the oath of reaffirming Islam at your hand. And I did not part from him, so much so that I reaffirmed my faith in Islam. 1. Tabarani narrated it in al-Mujam-ul-awsat (7:49, 50 # 6081); and Haythami in Majma-uz-zawaid (9:128). The Same Event of the battle of yemen is narrated many times in different traditions It is narrated by Buraydah : I took part in the Battle of Yemen with Ali and I had a complaint against him. When I went to see the Prophet returning from war , I mentioned Ali in rather improper words. I saw that the Prophets face had flushed, and he said: O Buraydah! Am I not nearer than the lives of the believers I said: why not, O Messenger of Allah! At this,he said: One who has me as his master has Ali as his master Ahmad bin Hambal related it in al-Musnad (5:347), and Fadailus- sahabah (2:584, 585 # 989); Nasai, as-Sunan-ul-kubra (5:130# 8465), Khasais amir-il-muminin Ali bin Abi Talib (p. 86 # 78), and Fadail-us-sahabah (p.14 # 42); Hakim, al-Mustadrak (3:110# 4578); Ibn Abi Shaybah, al-Musannaf (12:84# 12181); Ibn AbiAsim, al-Ahad wal-mathani (4:325, 326); Shashi, al-Musnad(1:127); Tabarani, al-Mujam-ul-awsat (1:229 # 348); Muhib Tabari, ar-Riyad-un-nadrah fi manaqib-il-ashrah (3:128); AbuUla, Tuhfat-ul-ahwadhi (10:147); Abu Nuaym, Hilyat-ul-awliyawa tabaqat-ul-asfiya (4:23); Ibn Asakir, Tarikh Dimashq al-kabir(45:142, 146-8); and Hindi in Kanz-ul-ummal (13:134 # 36422). Ibn Kathir said in al-Bidayah wan–nihayah (4:168; 5:457) that the tradition narrated by Nasai has a sound chain of succession (isnaduhu jayyid qawi) and all of its narrators are of integrity (rijaluhu thiqah). Hadith 5: One who does not regard Hazrat Ali (radiallahu taala anhu) as his maula is not a momin. It is narrated by Hadrat Ali RA . He said: on the day of Ghadir Khum, the Messenger of Allah had a turban tied round my head (as a symbol of honour) and let the loose end hang down at the back. Then he said: The angels whom Allah had sent to help me at Badr and Hunayn were wearing turbans of the same kind. He then added: surely the turban differentiates between belief and disbelief . 1. Tayalisi related it in al-Musnad (p.23#154); and Bayhaqi in as-Sunan-ul-kubra (10:14). Hadith 6:Fatwah of Hazrat Umar radiallahu taala anhu "One who does not regard Hazrat Ali (radiallahu taala anhu) as his maula is not a momin". How Syedina Umar(radiallahu taala anhu) loved Syedina Hazrat Ali (radiallahu taala anhu)) Two Bedouins came quarelling to Hazrat Umar who said to Hazrat Ali ," O Abul-Hassan, Please settle the dispute between these two". Thereafter, Hazrat Ali made his judgement in favour of one of them.One of the men remarked, "Is he all who remained to settle our dispute".On hearing this Hazrat Umar leapt towards the man and grabbed him by the neck (and lifted him off the ground) and said, "Do you know who he is". He is my and every Momins Maula (Master). Whoever does not consider him his Maula is not a Momin. [Muhib Tabari, ar-Riyad-un-nadrah fi manaqib-il-ashrah] [Ibn-e-Asaakar Tarikh-e-Damish al Kabeer] Hadith 7: Hazrat Ali (radiallahu taala anhu) is in the Ahle Bayt and is among the five purified personalities mentioned in the Quraan. The revelation of the last verse of a the Ayath E Tathir Hadrat Aisha R.A narrates the hadith of the cloak which happened in a closed room due to her love for the Ahle Bayt: One day the Prophet (Salalaahu Alaihi wasallam) came out afternoon wearing a black cloak (upper garment or gown; long coat), then al-Hasan Ibn Ali came and the Prophet accommodated him under the cloak, then al-Husain came and entered the cloak, then Fatimah came and the Prophet entered her under the cloak, then Ali came and the Prophet entered him to the cloak as well. Then the Prophet recited: "Verily Allah intends to keep off from you every kind of uncleanness O People of the House (Ahlul-Bayt), and purify you a perfect purification (the last sentence of Verse 33:33)." * Sahih Muslim, Chapter of virtues of companions, section of the virtues of the Ahlul-Bayt of the Prophet (PBUH&HF), 1980 Edition Pub. in Saudi Arabia, Arabic version, v4, p1883, Tradition #61 Hadees 8:The Legacy of Hazrat Ali(radiallahu taala anhu) Spiritual leadership will continue to the Awliya. It is narrated by Ammar bin Yasir that the Messenger of Allah said: whoso believed me and endorsed me, I shall pass on to him the legacy of Ali s spiritual leadership. Anyone who regarded him(Syedina Ali (radiallahu taala anhu) ) as his guardian, he regarded me as his guardian, and anyone who regarded me as his guardian, he regarded Allah as his Guardian, and anyone who loved him (Ali) , he loved me and one who loved me loved Allah , and one who bore malice towards him (Ali) bore malice towards me and one who bore malice towards me bore malice towards Allah Haythami has related this tradition from Tabarani in Majma-uzzawaid (9:108, 109) and has called its narrators credible (thiqah); and Hindi copied it in Kanz-ul-ummal (11:611 # 32958). Ibn Asakir narrated it in Tarikh Dimashq al-kabir (45:181, 182). Hadith 9: Revelation of the verse after the event of Ghadeer Ul Khulm “Abu Hurayrah (radiallahu taala anhu) has narrated that one who fasted on 18 Dhul-hijjah will receive a reward equal to 60 months of fasting. This was the day of Ghadir Khum when the Prophet (salalaahu alaihi wasallam) , holding Ali bin Abi Talibs hand, said: Am I not the guar dian of the believers They said: why not, O messenger of Allah! He said: One who has me as his master has Ali as his master. At this Umar bin al- Khattab (radiallahu taala anhu) said: congratulations! O I bn Abi Talib! You are my master and (the master of ) every Muslim. (On this occasion) Allah revealed this verse: Today, I have perfected your religion for you.” - Quran (al-Maidah, the Table spread) 5:3. 1. Khatib Baghdadi related it in Tarikh Baghdad (8:290); Wahidi, Asbab-un-nuzul (p.108); Razi, at-Tafsir-ul-kabir (11:139); Ibn Asakir, Tarikh Dimashq al-kabir (45:176,177); 2. Ibn Kathir, alBidayah wan-nihayah (5:464); and 3. Tabarani in al-Mujam-ulawsat (3:324#). 4. Ibn Asakir narrated it through Abu Said al-Khudri in Tarikh Dimashq al-kabir (45:179) 5. Suyuti said in ad-Durr-ul-manthur fit-tafsir bil-mathur (2:259) that the verse (5:3) revealed when the Prophet (salalaahu alaihi wassallam) said on the day of Ghadir Khum: One who has me as his master has Ali as his master. Hadith 10: Umar Ibn Al Khattab narrates “Umar (radiallahu taala anhu) said: one who has Allah s Messenger (salalaahu alaihi wassallam) as his master has Ali as his master . “ Salim narrates: Umar was asked why he alwaystreated Ali (radiallahu taala anhu) differently from other Companions . (At this) Umar (radiallahu taala anhu) replied: Indeed that ( Ali) is my master .” Related by Muhib Tabari in ar-Riyad-un-nadrah fi manaqib-il-ashrah (3:128). Ibn Asakir narrated it in Tarikh Dimashq al-kabir (45:178). Hadith 11: Heartiest Congratulations from the Hazrat Shaykayn(radiallahu taala anhu) Manawi has written in Fayd-ul-qadir (6:217) that when Abu Bakr (radiallahu taala anhu) and Umar ((radiallahu taala anhu)) had heard the Prophet’s saying — One who has me as his master has Ali as his master — they said to Ali ((radiallahu taala anhu)) : O son of Abu Talib! You have become the master of every male and female believer, morning and evening (for ever).” Dhahabī has said in Siyar alam-in-nubala (2:623, 624) that Umar (radiallahu taala anhu) uttered the words: "O Ali Congratulations" Hadees 12: The Holy Prophet (Sallalaahu Alaihi wasallam) said: "Verily, Ali and I are inseparable, and he is the master (wali) of every believer after me." References: * Al Tirmizi, in his Sahih, ii, 297 * Ahmad ibn Hanbal in his Musnad, iv, 437, v, 356 * Abu Dawud al Tayalisi in his Musnad, iii, 111, xi, 360 * al-Haythami Majma al Zawaid, ix, 109, 127, 128, 199 * al Khatib al Baghdadi, Tarikh Baghdad, iv, 339 * al Muhibb al Tabari, al Riyad al Nadirah, ii, 203, 171 * al Muttaqi al Hindi, Kanz al Ummal, vi, 154, 155, 396, 401 * Ibn al Asir in Usd al Ghabah, v, 94 * Abu Nuaym in Hilyat al Awliya, vi, 294 * al Nasai, Khasais, 19, 23 * as well as Ibn Abi Shaybah, al Tabari, al Tabarani, al Daylami, Ibn Mardawayh, Ibn al Jawzi, al Rafii, and Ibn Hajar.