Birth and Early Life Hazrat Ali R.A was the first cousin of the Holy Prophet Muhammed (May Allah send his blessings and peace be upon him). He was born in the Holy Kaaba, and later named by the Holy Prophet Muhammed S.A.S as Ali. He was adopted by the Holy Prophet Muhammed S.A.S and raised by Holy Prophet Muhammed S.A.S. He is said to have witnessed the events when Holy Prophet Muhammed S.A.S got the revelations. He also witnessed The Holy Prophet Muhammed S.A.S prostrating before Allah even before Islam was preached openly, He was the first male to accept Islam. Hazrat Ali R.A was thus spritually guided and mentored by The Holy Prophet Muhammed S.A.S. He was thus very close to the Holy Prophet Muhammed S.A.S in his personal life. Hazrat Ali started assiting the Holy Prophet Muhammed S.A.S at a very young age. He was a very steadfast person and never missed prayers. The Holy Prophet Muhammed S.A.S recieved two kinds of knowledge from Allah, one was the knowledge of the book and the other was the knowledge of the heart which is also called as Marifat. Hazrat Ali R.A thus recieved the inner knowledge from the Holy Prophet Muhammed S.A.S. Some of his sayings are from this knowledge. "Man is a wave in boundless sea of god" "Kindness, love friendship and forgiveness are reflections of the divine within" Selflessnes When the Holy Prophet Muhammed S.A.S went for Jihad with enemies. Hazrat Ali R.A used to be flag bearer in most circumstances. Hazrat Ali R.A used to be selfless and pushed himself through the enemies. He earned the title "Sher E yazdaan" which means bravest man of the age and also "Asadulla hil Ghalib" which means Lion of Allah. Hazrat Ali R.A never did fight for wealth and greed. He only fought for Allah's cause, for Justice and against Opression, injustice and Tyranny. Hazrat Ali R.A always put others before himself. He said the "The Strongest among you is he who subdues himself". Hazrat Ali R.A was chosen by the Holy Prophet Muhammed S.A.S for creating the peace treaty called "Treaty of Hubaidah" which was a peace treaty between the Muslims and polyatheists . Proclamation of ninth chapter of Surah Tawbah Hazrat Ali proclaimed the ninth chapter of the Quraan called Surah At tawba to the people. This was the only time when somebody other than the Holy Prophet Muhammed S.A.S proclaimed any verse of the Holy Quraan. In 631 AD, Holy Prophet Muhammed S.A.S sent from Medina a delegation of three hundred Muslims to perform the Hajj according to the new Islamic way. Hazrat Abu Bakr R.A was appointed as the leader of the delegates. The day after Hazrat Abu Bakr R.A and his party had left for Hajj, Holy Prophet Muhammed S.A.S received a new revelation: Surah Tawbah, the ninth chapter of the Qur'an. It is related that when this revelation came, The Holy Prophet Muhammed S.A.S summoned Hazrat Ali R.A , and asked him to proclaim a portion of Surah Tawbah to the people on the day of sacrifice when they assembled at Mina. Hazrat Ali R.A went forth on Holy Prophet Muhammed S.A.S 's slit-eared camel and joined the people. Hazrat Abu Bakr R.A wanted to know whether he had come to give orders or to convey them. Hazrat Ali R.A said that he had not come to replace Hazrat Abu Bakr R.A as Amir-ul-Hajj, and that his only mission was to convey a special message to the people on behalf of Holy Prophet Muhammed S.A.S. At Mecca, Hazrat Abu Bakr R.A presided at the Hajj ceremony, and Hazrat Ali R.A read the proclamation on behalf of Holy Prophet Muhammed S.A.S. The Holy Prophet Muhammed S.A.S thus chose Hazrat Ali R.A to represent himself and narrate the ninth Chapter of the surah of the Quran called "Surah Tawba" to the people. There are a few hadith's in which the Holy Prophet Muhammed S.A.S explicitly said that no one should represent him except Hazrat Ali R.A. Narrated Hubshi bin Junadah: The Messenger of Allah S.A.S said: "'Ali is from me and I am from 'Ali. And none should represent me except myself or 'Ali." Jami at-Tirmidhi Grade : Hasan (Darussalam) English reference : Vol. 1, Book 46, Hadith 3719 Arabic reference : Book 49, Hadith 4085 It was narrated that Hubshi bin Junadah said: "I heard the Messenger of Allah say: Ali is part of me and I am part of him, and no one will represent me except 'Ali." Jami at-Tirmidhi Grade : Hasan (Darussalam) English reference : Vol. 1, Book 1, Hadith 119 Arabic reference : Book 1, Hadith 124 Migration to Madina and The night of Higrat According to Muslim tradition, After receiving divine direction to depart Mecca, The Holy Prophet Muhammad S.A.S began taking preparation and informed Hazrat Abu Bakr R.A. of his plan. On the night of his departure, The Holy house was besieged by men of the Quraysh who planned to kill him in the morning. At the time, The Holy Prophet Muhammad S.A.S possessed various properties of the Quraysh given to him in trust; so he handed them over to Hazrat Ali R.A and directed him to return them to their owners and asked him to lie down on his bed assuring him of God's protection. When the Holy Prophet Muhammad S.A.S emerged from his house he recited the ninth verse of surah Yaasin of the Quran and threw a handful of dust at the direction of the besiegers rendering the besiegers unable to see him. Soon, The Holy Prophet Muhammad S.A.S joined Hazrat Abu Bakr R.A , left the city, and the two took shelter in a cave outside the city. Next morning, the besiegers were frustrated to find Hazrat Ali R.A on The Holy Prophet Muhammad S.A.S's bed. Fooled and thwarted by The Holy Porphet's plan, they rummaged the city in search for him, and some of them eventually reached the threshold of the cave, but success eluded them. Hazrat Ali (R.A) risked his life just for the sake of the Almighty and His Messenger by sleeping on the bed of the Holy Prophet. This shows the remarkable and unmatched fearlessness of Hazrat Ali (R.A) who was not concerned about his own life, rather committed his existence to serving the Holy Prophet S.A.S as he successfully returned all trusts to those they belonged the very next day, and then migrated to Madina. Later he was asked how he slept that night, he replied that he indeed slept a sound sleep. He also said that the reason for him sleeping soundly that night was that he believed that the Holy Prophet Muhammed S.A.S's word was a writing in stone. The Holy Prophet Muhammed had advised him to return the belongings of the people that night. This meant that Hazrat Ali R.A would not die that night. Hazrat Ali R.A thus had Understood the Holy Prophet Muhammed S.A.S and his spritual state and what he represents. He knew the Knowledge of Marifat of both Allah and the the Holy Prophet Muhammed S.A.S He later became the Son in Law of the Holy Prophet Muhammed S.A.S. He was a close companion of the Holy Prophet Muhammed S.A.S in all his endeavours. The Spiritual Leadership of the Holy Prophet Muhammed S.A.S continued through Hazrat Ali R.A as delcared by the Holy Prophet Muhammed S.A.S in the event of Event of Ghadder Ul Khulm. When the Holy Prophet Muhammed S.A.S died, Hazrat Ali R.A buried him and entered his grave to bury him. Narrated Amir: Ali, Fadl and Usamah ibn Zayd washed the Messenger of Allah and they put him in his grave. Marhab or Ibn AbuMarhab told me that they also made AbdurRahman ibn Awf join them. When Ali became free, he said: The People of the man serve him. Reference : Sunan Abi Dawud 3209 In-book reference : Book 21, Hadith 121 English translation : Book 20, Hadith 3203 Hazrat Ali also became the fourth of the Righly Guided Khalifas, who were elected by the muslims. After his death Monarchy first started in the Arab world.